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The devastation of Northumbria’s Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal courts of Europe to the Viking presence. “Never before has such an atrocity been seen,” declared the Northumbrian scholar Alcuin of York. Medieval Christians in Europe have been totally unprepared for the Viking incursions and could discover no explanation for his or her arrival and the accompanying struggling they experienced at their hands save the “Wrath of God”. More than some other https://yourmailorderbride.com/swedish-women/ single occasion, the assault on Lindisfarne demonised perception of the Vikings for the next twelve centuries. Not until the 1890s did students exterior Scandinavia start to significantly reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills, and seamanship.